An outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease) is emerging and rapidly spreading worldwide. Saliva stands at the entry of respiratory system and was also found COVID-19 nucleic acid positive. Saliva is gaining importance day by day and is functionally equivalent to the serum maintaining a physiological state of the body, including hormonal, emotional, nutritional, and metabolic variations. In recent times, the use of salivary diagnostics in a clinical setting is becoming a reality because of the improved efficiency of genomic and proteomic technologies.
Noninvasive nature, less hazardous and secure to health care workers, salivary specimen collection for diagnosis of various diseases and including pandemic coronavirus disease has more advantages and acceptable for patients. Till now, three approaches have been reported to collect saliva—coughing out, saliva swabs, and directly from salivary gland duct.
Diagnostic Use of Saliva over Serum
The biochemical components present in the whole saliva holds a lot of importance in early detection and diagnosis of the diseases because of the following advantages over Serum:
- Non-invasive collection of sample, easy to handle, cost effectiveness, inexpensive
- Safer to administer than serum sampling (no needles)
- Real-time diagnostic values
- No required trained medical staff
- Smaller sample aliquots, multiple samples can be obtained easily
- Collection and screening can be done at home, good cooperation with patients
- Minimal risks of cross-contamination, easy storage and transportation
- More economical sampling, greater sensitivity
- Requires less manipulation compared to serum during diagnostic procedures
- Commercial availability of screening assays.
With the advent of improved efficiency and accuracy of proteomic, genomic, transcriptome analysis salivary diagnostics turn into a clinical and commercial reality. Advanced molecular technique PCR led to the use of saliva as a source of microbial DNA for the detection of bacteria and virus. Saliva is increasingly used in DNA analysis as it serves as a useful source of biomarker profiling of oral or systemic diseases, and forensic identification.
The multifunctional roles of Saliva incur importance in today’s life with its requisite advantages over other body fluids. Early saliva diagnosis remains limited but promising, because of the improved efficiency of genomic and proteomic technologies which can prevent transmission of infections exhibit pandemic control
Resources: The Versatile Nature of Saliva- Forefront in Prophylactic Biomarkers: A Brief Review @ https://doi.org/10.36437/ijdrd.2020.2.2.R